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Seed Plants (Spermatophytes)

Seed plants or Spermatophyte (Yunani, sperm = seed, phyton = plant) representing plant group owning individuality, that is existence of an organ which is in the form of seed. Seed represent the shares coming from seed will and in it contain the individual candidate newly, that is cotyledon. Cotyledon will be happened by after is beforehand happened by the event of pollination or gist followed by impregnation. Taxonomists have found around 170.000 species of these plants.
Seed plants are also often called flowering plants (anthophytes) and phanerogamae. They are called phanerogamae because the reproduction organs can be seen clearly or not hidden.

The characteristics of seed plants are as follows :
1. Have specific characteristic that is seed organ. The seed is used for reproduction.
2. They are true cormous plants because the body consists of distinguishable parts of root, stem, and leaves. Besides, they have other supporting organs : flowers, fruits, and seeds.
3. Have vascular sheaf (xylem and phloem). The carrier vessels are smooth which streth along the root, through the stem, and extend to the leaves.
4. All their members reproduce vegetatively (asexually) and generatively (sexually).
5. Seed plants of most life in land. But, seed plants to of there is which live to float in water, for example lotus. Seed plants to represent the organism fotoautotrof.

The classification of seed plants :
A. Open Seed Plants (Gymnosperm)
Gymnosperm is the group of plants whose seeds are not wrapped or not protected by cotyledon. Gymnosperm have seeds but not fruits or flowers. Gymnos means naked, sperm means seed; gymnosperm = naked seeds. Gymnosperm developed during the Paleozoic Era and became dominant during the early Mesozoic Era. There are 700 living species placed into four divisions: conifers, cycads, ginkgos, and gnetales (such as Ephedra). The fossil records of some protist and plant groups. The width of the shaded space is an indicator of the number of species.
Gymnosperms are undoubtedly the group from which the angiosperms developed, although, as Charles Darwin noted in Origin of Species, which group "remains an abominable mystery". Numerous gymnosperm groups have been proposed as flowering plant ancestors over the past century.

The characteristics of open seed plants are as follows :
1. The root system contains taproots. The boundary between root end and calyptras is not clear.
2. The stem has branches. In general it has resin duct.
3. The root and stem have cambium so they can grow bigger.
4. The shapes of leaves are varies, they are stiff and contain vascular sheaves.
5. They don't have true flowers.
6. Seed embryo is found in the cotyledon.
7. In this plant, the cotyledons and the pollen-producing leaves are separated, each gathering in a cone-shaped body called strobilus.
8. Strobilus which is composed of cotyledons is called female strobilus, while strobilus which is composed of pollens is called male strobilus.

Gymnosperm include several classes, some of which are extinct. The classes of gymnosperm are as follows.

a. Class of Cycadinae
Habitus look like the palm have, wood, a little or don't branch, leaf lapped over in roset bar (crumpling at the end of bar), leaf bone share the fin or fin, and leaf which still lamellar coiled young of the plant nail. Sporofil lapped over in strobilus which has home of two, its situation tip of bar (terminal). This is the primitive seed plant. Its habitat is tropical and subtropical regions. Its all these plant faction member cover 9 genus and 65 species. Cycads retain some fern-like features, notably pinnate leaves and circulated venations. However, they (usually) produce cones of non photosynthetic reproductive structures. These cones are unisexual, in fact the plants are dioeciously, having separate male and female plants. Cycads were much more prominent in the forts of the Mesozoic than they are today. Presently, they are restricted to the tropics. Zamia floridana is the only cycad occurring natively in the continental United States. Several species of Cycas, notably C. revoluta, are commonly encountered cultivated plants in warm, moist areas. Cycas revoluta leaves are often used in Palm Sunday services.

b. Class of Ginkgoinae
This class member is consisted of by one ordo, that is Ginkgoales and only covering one set of family that is Ginkgoceae, the example of Gingkgo biloba. Gingkgo biloba is a plant which comes from China.

The characteristics of Gingkgo biloba are as follows :
1. It is a tall plant.
2. The leaf has a long stalk, is fan-shaped, and has branches veins.
3. In autumn, the leaves fall.
4. The outer cover of the seed is fleshy, while the inner cover is hard.
5. It has several benefits, such as :
a. The leaf may be used medicine for asthma and to control blood plessure.
b. The fruit can be used as food supplement to enchance the brain's performance.

c. Class of Coniferae
This class is the largest gymnosperm, the members include the oldest and tallest trees in the world. An example of plants that are included in this class is Mercusii pine.
This class is divided in a few ordo with the example of family are as follows :
* Ordo Taxales. For example set of family Taxaceae, the example Taxus.
* Ordo Araucariales. For example set of family Araucariaceae, the example of Araucaria and agathis (resin).
* Ordo Podocarpales. For example set of family Podocarpaceae, the example podocarpus.
* Ordo Pinales. For example famili Pinaceae, the example of abies alba and Merkusii pine (pine).

The characteristics of this class are as follows :
1. They appear in the form of a bush, or a tree with a conical top.
2. They are widely spread, especially in areas with moderate and cold climate.
3. They are usually monoecious, the male strobilus is located at the end of a branch, and the female strobilus is closer to the branch base.
4. The male strobilus produces pollen containing sperm cells.
5. The female strobilus contains a lot of scales spirally arranged. Seed embryos are located between the scales.
6. Several roles of Coniferae are as follows :
a. As a source of material for making paper.
b. As a source of soft wood.
c. As timber.
d. As source materials for pplastic, varnish, turpentine, and ink for printing.
The Corniferae plant which is commonly planted in Indonesia is pine. Pine is planted in mountaineous regions to produce turpentine.

d. Class of Gnetinae
An example of plants which are included into this class is the Gnetum gnemon (melinjo).

The characteristics of this class are as follows :
1. Has single leaves facing each other.
2. Its stem is woody without resin duct.
3. Its flower is a complex flower in the shape of a grain.
4. Several of its roles are :
a. The fruit and young leaf are used as vegetable.
b. Its seed can be used to make chips.
c. Its skin fibre can be used to make a net.

This class is divided in a few ordo with the example of family are as follows :
* Ordo Taxales. For example set of family Taxaceae, the example Taxus.
* Ordo Araucariales. For example set of family Araucariaceae, the example of Araucaria and agathis (resin).
* Ordo Podocarpales. For example set of family Podocarpaceae, the example podocarpus.
* Ordo Pinales. For example famili Pinaceae, the example of abies alba and Merkusii pine (pine).

Gymnospermae plays a number of roles in human life.
Some of which are as follows :

* As materials fo paper and matches industry. For example pine tree (Merkusii pine) and resin tree (Agathis alba).
* As substance for medicine. For example ginkgo tree (Gingkgo biloba).
* As food stuff. For example melinjo tree (Gnetum gnemon).
* As decorative plant. For example pakis haji (Cycas rumphii).

B. Closed Seed Plants (Angiosperm)
Angiosperm (Yunani, Angeion = bottle, sperma = seed; relate at female reproduction appliance looking like bottle) is the group of plants whose seeds are wrapped or protected by cotyledon.

The characteristics of closed seed plants are as follows :
1. The plants have high development rate.
2. Already have true flower.
3. The shape and composition of the flower vary but has the same basic parts, that is petals, pistil, and stamen.
4. Pistil consist of styles, stigma, and ovary which contains ovules.
5. Stamen consist of filaments and others which conation pollen grains.
6. Its has thin, wide leaves, and leaf veins with varied compositions.
7. Ovule or seed does not appear because it is covered by cotyledons.
8. It undergoes double fertilization.
9. The time used between pollination and fertilization is relatively short.
10.Angiospermae have many uses, that is as vegetable, clothing material, cattle food, and drug substances.

Angiosperm undergoes double fertilization, but the fertilization is preceded by pollination.

>> Pollination

Pollination is the event of sticking (falling) pollen grain to stigma. Pollination can be separated based on the origin of pollen grain and factor that help pollination.
-> Pollination Based On The Origin of Pollens
Pollination which is based on the origin of pollens is distinguished into four kinds, that is :
^^ Self Pollination (Autogamy)
^^ Neighborhood Pollination (Geitonogamy)
^^ Cross Pollination (Allogamy)
^^ Bastard Pollination (Hybridogamy)

-> Pollination Based On Factors That Help Pollination
Pollination which is based on the supporting factors is distinguished into four kinds, that is :
^^ Pollination by animal (Zoogamy) --> insect, birds, bats, and snails.
^^ Pollination by the wind (Anemogamy) --> rice plant, grass, and corn.
^^ POllination by water (Hydrogamy) --> Hydrilla
^^ Pollination by human (Aanthropogamy) --> vanilla

>> Fertilization

Fertilization is the process of fusion of spermatozoid cell with egg cell (ovum) which produces zygote. Fertilization in angiosperm is called double fertilization. Its fertilization process is as follows.

The Process of Double Fertilization in Angiosperm.

After pollination happens, the pollen which sticks to the stigma grows to be vascular grain. The vascular grain delivers nucleus of spermatozoid to meet the nucleus of egg cell in the ovary. Then those two nuclei (spermatozoid's nucleus + egg cell's nucleus) dissolve to produce zygote. Zygote develops into embryos, embryos develops into a bud and finally the bud grows into a new plant.
Besides, fusion also happens between nucleus of spermatozoid cell with secondary cotyledon nucleus to produce cotyledon pistil (Endosperm). The endosperm functions as food reserve for the embryos.
So fertilization in angiosperm is called double fertilization because it happens two times, that is :
^ The fusion of spermatozoid cell's nucleus with egg cell's nucleus produces zygote.
^ The fusion of spermatozoid cell's nucleus with secondary cotyledon nucleus produces endosperm.

Based on the number of cotyledons angiosperm are grouped into two classes, that is :

** Monocotyledons

Monocotyledons have single cotyledon in the seed.
The characteristics of monocotyledons are as follows :
1. The seed has one cotyledon. When it buds, the seed does not split.
2. The process of double fertilization happening in angiosperm. Source :
Have fibrous root system. The fibrous root system has many slim roots of the same dimension which spread to every direction and become secondary roots.
3. Have stem with no branches.
4. Have single leaf with leaf-sheath, leaf sit is alternating or rosette, and its leaf veins are parallel or curved.
5. The number of flower parts is three or its multiples.
6. Stem and root have no cambium, so there is no secondary growth (can't grow bigger).
7. The location of vascular sheaf enlarges.

Several families (orders) of monocotyledons are :
>> Liliaceae => Lilium duchartrei, Allium cepa
>> Orchidaceae => Phalaeonopsis amabilis, Vanda tricolor, Cymbidium hookerianum
>> Poaceae (Gramineae) => Oryza sativa, Zea mays, Saccharum officinarum
>> Musaceae => Musa paradisiacal
>> Palmae (Arecateae) => Cocos nucifera
>> Zingiberaceae => Zingiber officinale, Curcuma domestica, Alpinia galanga

** Dicotyledons

Dicotyledon has two cotyledons in the seed.
The characteristics of monocotyledons are as follows :
1. The seed has two cotyledons. When it buds, the seed splits.
2. Has single root system.
3. Its stem has many branches.
4. Has single or compound leaf generally accompanied by the receptacle leaf, and seldom has a leaf sheath.
5. The number of flower parts is two, four, or five.
6. Stem and root have cambium so they make secondary growth (can grow bigger).
7. Position of vascular sheaves is circular.

Classification of dicotyledons are :

- Monochlamydeae
Monochlamydeae (Yunani, mono = single, chlamydos = wrap) is a plant which don't have the flower ornament, or if there is only consisted of by the just flower calyx. This class consists of trees or at least wooden plants. The flower is monoecious and its pollination is helped by the wind (anemogamy).
The groups which include into this subclass are :
>> Casuarinales => Casuaria equsetifolia
>> Fagales => Betula nona
>> Proteales => Bankisa coccinea
>> Urticales => Artocarpus integra
>> Piperales => Piper nigrum
>> Caryophyllales => Mirabilis jalapa

- Dialypetalae
The plants which include into dialypetalae are the plants whose colorful flower, and we can identify the petal and sepal.
The groups which include into this subclass are :
>> Renales (Polycarpicae) => Annona muricata, Cananga odoratumkata
>> Rosales => Parkia speciosa
>> Brassicales (Rhoeadales) => Cleome hassleriana
>> Malvales (Columniferae) => Gossypium hirsutum, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis
>> Rutales => Citrus nobilis, Murraya paniculata

- Sympetalae
The groups which include into this subclass are :
>> Solanalels => Solanium tuberosum
>> Rubiales => Ixora grandiflora, Mussaenda frondosa
>> Apocynales=> Allamanda cathartica

The benefits of plants for life are as follows :
@ Teak or ebony trees to be used as material to make buildings, furniture, ships, bridges, and so on.
@ The seed of Gingkgo biloba has a function to sharpen memory.
@ The totipotential characteristic is used in tissue culture technique, so plants can be produce and a short time and a large quantity.
@ Grist, rice field, and maize represent the especial food most resident in world.
@ Bean, tomato, potato, and carrot represent vegetable as source of fibre, protein, and vitamin.
@ Mengkudu, deity leaf, and fennel as material of medicines
@ Teak, mahony, and pine as absorber karbondioksida and source of oxygen
@ Various forsythia for the ceremony of custom and religion, and also cosmetic

Conclusions :
:: Seed plants have specific characteristic in the form of seed organs. The seed is used as reproduction organ.
:: Seed plants are distinguished into two groups, that are Gymnosperm and Angiosperm.
:: Several classes of gymnosperm are Cycadicae, Gingkgoinae, Coniferae, and Gnetinae
:: Based on the number of cotyledons, angiosperm is distinguished into two classes, that is monocotyledon and dicotyledon.